Selasa, 02 September 2014

Baggage Weight Limitations, Hand Luggage and Restrictions for Liquids

Baggage Weight Limitations

In accordance with the local occupational safety rules, passengers travelling to and from Australia, Brunei, New Zealand, South Africa, Sri Lanka, United Arab Emirates and United Kingdom, should note that your checked baggage cannot exceed 32 kg per piece. This baggage weight limitation of 32kg is an issue relating to Occupational Health Safety and is not your baggage allowance. Any excess baggage above your allowance is chargeable. Passengers are required to re-pack their baggage if the baggage weight exceeds the above-stipulated limitation per piece. Heavy machinery or spare parts that exceeds the indicated weight above would not be uplifted baggage to and from these countries. "CPT Airport baggage conveyor system has a max standard IATA bag, which is 90 x 72 x 45cm"

Hand luggage

Hand luggage or cabin baggage (also commonly referred to as carry-on in North America) is the type of luggage that passengers are allowed to carry along in the passenger compartment of a vehicle instead of moving to the cargo compartment. Passengers are allowed to carry a limited number of smaller bags with them in the vehicle and contain valuables and items needed during the journey. There is normally storage space provided for hand luggage, either under seating, or in overhead lockers. Trains usually have luggage racks above the seats and may also (especially in the case of trains travelling longer distances) have luggage space between the backs of seats facing opposite directions, or in extra luggage racks, for example, at the ends of the carriage near the doors.

Commercial airlines

The International Air Transport Association (IATA) sets guidelines for cabin baggage/hand luggage/carry-on luggage size.They are not mandatory, however, and individual airlines can and do vary their requirements. The IATA guideline states:

Cabin baggage should have a maximum length of 56 cm (22 inches), width of 45 cm (18 inches) and depth of 25 cm (10 inches) including all handles, side pockets, wheels etc.

Most low-cost airlines have smaller limits for the cabin baggage where one bag is commonly allowed at a size of 55 cm x 40 cm x 20 cm. Still the maximum weight differs widely in the range of 5 kg to 12 kg. A second bag is mostly not allowed for low-cost travel.

The actual size and weight limits of cabin baggage can differ widely, in some cases they are dependent on the aircraft model being used, in other cases it depends on the booking class. As an example of the lack of standardization, the maximum permitted cabin luggage restrictions of some airlines are:
  • 48 cm x 33 cm x 20 cm Aer Lingus Regional (Stobart Air - one bag max. 7 kg)
  • 48 cm x 36 cm x 20 cm Aurigny Air Services class Regional (one bag max. 10 kg) or class Inter-Island (max. 6 kg)
  • 50 cm x 45 cm x 20 cm Jet Airways for flights within India with ATR aircraft (one bag max. 7 kg for Economy Class, one bag max. 10 kg plus one laptop for Business and First Class)
  • 55 cm x 35 cm x 25 cm Jet Airways for all other flights (one bag max. 7 kg for Economy Class, one bag max. 10 kg plus one laptop for Business and First Class);Air France (weight allowance depends on route and class)
  • 55 cm x 40 cm x 20 cm Ryanair for all flights (first bag max. 10 kg);.Second bag of size 35 cm x 20 cm x 20 cm also allowed.
  • 55 cm x 40 cm x 23 cm Austrian Airlines, Lufthansa, Swiss International Air Lines (one bag max. 8 kg or a foldable garment bag up to 57 cm x 54 cm x 15 cm);Flybe (one bag max. 10 kg)
  • 55 cm x 40 cm x 24 cm Aer Lingus (one bag max. 10 kg plus one personal item not exceeding 33 cm x 25 cm x 20 cm)
  • 56 cm x 35 cm x 23 cm United Airlines; (one bag plus one personal item)
  • 56 cm x 36 cm x 23 cm Malaysia Airlines; (one bag up to 7 kg plus one personal item);Virgin Atlantic (One bag max. 10 kg); Delta Air Lines (One bag plus one personal item)
  • 56 cm x 45 cm x 25 cm (IATA size) British Airways (one bag plus one bag up to 45 cm x 36 cm x 20 cm, up to 23 kg each);EasyJet (one bag, no special weight limit, not guaranteed to travel in cabin; 50 cm x 40 cm x 20 cm is guaranteed);Finnair (one bag, max. 8 kg plus one personal item)
  • Commercial airline pilots and flight attendants also comply with standards. Those standards are set by individual airlines under "uniform restrictions" which guide and maintain professional dress codes.
Business Class, First class passengers and holders of high level milage club members are often allowed to carry on a second luggage of same size and weight, or a smaller size and weight.

On smaller sized aircraft the hand baggage can be carried in the cargo area. In this case the baggage is collected when boarding the aircraft and is handed back to passengers right after landing.

Security restrictions

Following the increase in restrictions imposed on flights from UK airports and to the USA after the events of August 2006 transatlantic aircraft plot, hand baggage on such flights was restricted to one cabin bag no bigger than 45 cm x 35 cm x 16 cm effective since 15 August.On 21 September 2006, the British Airports Authority advised that from the following day, the allowable size of the single item of hand baggage on outgoing flights from the UK would be increased to 56 cm x 45 cm x 25 cm (approx. 22 in x 17.75 in x 9.85 in), the IATA guideline size. Still most airports have a strict limit of one piece of cabin baggage per passenger - especially passengers in the business class are used to have two pieces of cabin baggage allowance within Europe which does not apply for flights to and from the UK.

European Union

Since 6 November 2006 there is a common regulation for cabin baggage restrictions in extended European Union (including Switzerland, Norway and Iceland).

Restrictions on liquids:
  • only liquids with max 100 ml per piece
  • all pieces assembled in a single zippable plastic bag of max 1000ml (1 liter)
  • the plastic resealable bag must not exceed 20 cm by 20 cm
  • maximum of 1 plastic bag per passenger
  • liquids include gels and lotions (shampoo, tooth paste), lip sticks, moist paper tissue, contact lens solution
  • prescribed medicine of any size (non-prescribed medicine-only items allowed well)
  • baby milk and other items for infants
  • nutrition for diabetes diet
Restrictions on abusable objects:
  • weaponry, including imitations and sports utilities (e.g. archery)
  • sharp objects, even small ones, including dart arrows and razor blades.
  • The recommendation allows for light knives and scissors with blades up to 6 cm but some countries do not accept these either (e.g. nail care items).
  • blunt objects, clubs and all larger sticks, including sports utilities (e.g. skateboard)
  • inflammable objects, including ethanol, alcoholic beverage above 70%, some match sticks
  • toxic chemicals, including pepper spray, liquid batteries, blood samples

United States

The United States Transportation Security Administration (TSA) has introduced a series of restrictions effective since 26. September 2006 under the name "3:1:1" for liquids

Restrictions for liquids:
  • 3.4 ounce or smaller of containers for liquids and gels (100 ml)
  • 1 quart-size clear plastic zip-top bag holding the liquid contents (approx. 950 ml)
  • 1 bag per traveler shown openly in the security bin.
  • the TSA guidelines explicitly accept the metricized portions of 100 ml / 1 liter as defined later in the European Union.
  • the list of exceptions for liquids (baby milk, diabetes diet) is identical.
  • Furthermore the TSA has additional restrictions for security searches - for example all baggage should not be locked (there are special luggage locks that TSA staff can open), gifts should not be wrapped, and shoes may be required to be taken off during body search with the metal detector. Food items in the luggage may be mistaken for dangerous material triggering an intensive search.

Rabu, 13 Agustus 2014


For most of us, knowing to simply say that we like a wine when we taste it is about as far as we go in using words to describe wine. But for a ton of wine professionals out there, there is a whole vocabulary of terms available of which they’re intimately familiar. And here is where the disconnect between average wine drinkers and wine professionals occurs. Wine drinkers ask said professional about a wine, and the words used to describe it are so foreign, it is as if they’re in a language the customer doesn’t speak. With that in mind, here is a list of 20 words the majority of wine drinkers have no experience with, and what they mean.

1. Austere
This is when a wine just doesn’t taste very good. It is harsh and acidic and has no fruit flavors whatsoever. Sometimes this can be because the wine is young, but often it can just be because it is poorly made and not “balanced.” Instead of saying Austere one could just as easily say the wine is harsh and tannic with no fruit flavors.
2. Chewy
When a wine is chewy, it means the tannins are so strong they severely dry out your mouth, causing you to chew in order to create saliva and moisten up your mouth. Simply saying the wine is drying out your mouth, causing you to need to make more salivia, is saying the same thing.
3. Balance
When everything works together in harmony, the fruit flavors, acidity, level of oak, etc., the wine is said to be balanced. Usually this is based on individual taste. This is a very desirable quality. If someone tells you the wine is balanced, it is probably delicious.
4. Closed
When a wine is closed it means it is not showing its full potential. Maybe it didn’t decant long enough, or for some wines, maybe it was still too young to be drunk. An alternative would be to say you think the wine is not ready to be drunk yet.
5. Barnyard
This means the wine smells like poop. It is usually not a favorable descriptor. Since the wine smells like poop, might as well just say so.
6. Fat
When a wine is fat it is big and ripe and just sort of sits in your mouth without any acidity to help balance it. Fat wine is not a wine you want to drink.
7. Earthy
The wine smells like dirt, leaves, and wood. It is also used to describe wines that have a finish that tastes similar to green vegetables.
8. Decadent
When the wine is just over the top awesome. Rich, delicious, the bomb.
9. Creamy
Used for white wines that were aged in oak. A wine that tastes buttery is creamy, so you can simply say you like buttery whites.
10. Malo
See creamy. When a wine has malo it has a buttery flavor. Many Chardonnays, especially from California, are said to have heavy malo.
11. Grip
Another word for saying the wine has a lot of strong tannins. It is a wine that dries your mouth out the second you take a sip — definitely a wine that would need to be drunk with food.
12. Hedonistic
Robert Parker‘s favorite word. Wines that just blow you away. Parker likes hedonistic, but you can just say the wine is damn amazing.
13. Hot
The wine is too high in alcohol—you can literally smell the alcohol vapors.
14. Lean
If a wine feels thin in your mouth, almost watery, they are said to be lean.
15. Minerality
Think the smell and taste of wet rocks. It is actually pretty difficult to pick out, and it is unclear if people actually taste it, or they just think they do. More often you’ll hear people say a wine has a nice minerality when that wine happens to come from a region known for imparting this characteristic in the wine, such as the Graves region of Bordeaux.
16. Jammy
Wines that have intense fruit flavors are said to be jammy. Many US wine drinkers love jammy wines because we associate the word with a berry sweetness, like cherry pie filling.
17. Ponderous
Another Parker word. When he calls a wine ponderous, he means it makes you think too much. It is too trying to enjoy. You could also just say, I don’t like this wine, there’s too much going on.
18. Woody
Wines that spend too much time in oak. Smelling them is like smelling a 2×4 or the sawdust on a woodshop floor. Woody wines overpower the smell of the fruit and are not desirable.
19. Velvety
A desirable characteristic in wine. Wines that are smooth, easy to drink, luscious and delicious. You could just as easily say you want to bathe in it. Think of George Costanza wanting to be draped in velvet.
20. Varietally Correct
When a wine tastes the way the majority of wine tasters think the grapes used to make that wine should taste. It is the fancy way of saying this Merlot tastes like really well made Merlot.
Originally from

Sabtu, 02 Agustus 2014


Ganesha, also spelled Ganesh, and also known as Ganapati and Vinayaka, is a widely worshipped deity in the Hindu pantheon. His image is found throughout India and Nepal. Hindu sects worship him regardless of affiliations. Devotion to Ganesha is widely diffused and extends to Jains, Buddhists, and beyond India.
Although he is known by many attributes, Ganesha's elephant head makes him easy to identify. Ganesha is widely revered as the remover of obstacles, the patron of arts and sciences and the deva of intellect and wisdom. As the god of beginnings, he is honoured at the start of rituals and ceremonies. Ganesha is also invoked as patron of letters and learning during writing sessions. Several texts relate mythological anecdotesassociated with his birth and exploits and explain his distinct iconography.
Ganesha emerged as a distinct deity in the 4th and 5th centuries CE, during the Gupta Period, although he inherited traits from Vedic and pre-Vedic precursors. He was formally included among the five primary deities of Smartism (a Hindu denomination) in the 9th century. A sect of devotees called the Ganapatya arose, who identified Ganesha as the supreme deity. The principal scriptures dedicated to Ganesha are the Ganesha Purana, the Mudgala Purana, and the Ganapati Atharvashirsa.
Ganesha has been ascribed many other titles and epithets, including Ganapati and Vighneshvara. The Hindu title of respect Shri (Sanskrit: श्री; IAST: śrī; also spelled Sri or Shree) is often added before his name. One popular way Ganesha is worshipped is by chanting a Ganesha Sahasranama, a litany of "a thousand names of Ganesha". Each name in the sahasranama conveys a different meaning and symbolises a different aspect of Ganesha. At least two different versions of the Ganesha Sahasranama exist; one version is drawn from the Ganesha Purana, a Hindu scripture venerating Ganesha.
The name Ganesha is a Sanskrit compound, joining the words gana (Sanskrit: गण; IAST: gaṇa), meaning a group, multitude, or categorical system and isha (Sanskrit: ईश; IAST: īśa), meaning lord or master.The word gaņa when associated with Ganesha is often taken to refer to the gaņas, a troop of semi-divine beings that form part of the retinue of Shiva (IAST: Śiva).The term more generally means a category, class, community, association, or corporation. Some commentators interpret the name "Lord of the Gaņas" to mean "Lord of Hosts" or "Lord of created categories", such as the elements. Ganapati (Sanskrit: गणपति; IAST: gaṇapati), a synonym for Ganesha, is a compound composed of gaṇa, meaning "group", and pati, meaning "ruler" or "lord".The Amarakosha, an early Sanskrit lexicon, lists eight synonyms of Ganesha : VinayakaVighnarāja (equivalent to Vighnesha), Dvaimātura (one who has two mothers), Gaṇādhipa (equivalent to Ganapati and Ganesha), Ekadanta (one who has one tusk), HerambaLambodara (one who has a pot belly, or, literally, one who has a hanging belly), and Gajanana (IAST:gajānana); having the face of an elephant).
Vinayaka (Sanskrit: विनायक; IAST: vināyaka) is a common name for Ganesha that appears in the Purāṇas and in Buddhist Tantras. This name is reflected in the naming of the eight famous Ganesha temples in Maharashtra known as the Ashtavinayak (aṣṭavināyaka).The names Vighnesha (Sanskrit: विघ्नेश; IAST: vighneśa) and Vighneshvara (विघ्नेश्वरvighneśvara) (Lord of Obstacles) refers to his primary function in Hindu theology as the master and remover of obstacles (vighna).
A prominent name for Ganesha in the Tamil language is Pillai (Tamilபிள்ளை) or Pillaiyar (பிள்ளையார்). A. K. Narain differentiates these terms by saying that pillai means a "child" while pillaiyar means a "noble child". He adds that the words pallupella, and pell in the Dravidian family of languages signify "tooth or tusk", also "elephant tooth or tusk". Anita Raina Thapan notes that the root word pille in the name Pillaiyar might have originally meant "the young of the elephant", because the Pali word pillaka means "a young elephant".
In the Burmese language, Ganesha is known as Maha Peinne, derived from Pali Mahā Wināyaka.The widespread name of Ganesha in Thailand is Phra Phikhanet or Phra Phikhanesuan, both of which are derived from Vara Vighnesha and Vara Vighneshvara respectively, whereas the name Khanet (from Ganesha) is rather rare.
In Sri Lanka, in the North-Central and North Western areas with predominantly Buddhist population, Ganesha is known as Aiyanayaka Deviyo, while in other Singhala Buddhist areas he is known as Gana deviyo.

Rabu, 30 Juli 2014


Maneki-neko (which literally translates as Beckoning Cat) is a popular statuette of Japanese origins. Experts believe that it first appeared in Japan during the Edo period (1603-1968).

The earliest documentation comes from the Meji Era (around the 1870s) in the form of a newspaper article. Around this time, Maneki Nekos clad in kimonos were given out at a shrine in Osaka. In 1902, an ad promoting money cats shows that these lucky cats were already popular at that time.

Of course, there are a few legends that claim that the Beckoning Cat appeared at a much earlier time.

Meaning of Each Feature

The Maneki-neko depicts a cat (believed to be a Japanese Bobtail) with a raised paw. You will find different versions of the Japanese lucky cat: some come with an upward right paw. Others come with an upward left paw. Tradition says that the one with the upward right paw attracts money while the one with the upward left paw attracts customers. So choose you figurine accordingly!

Here are the meanings of the Japanese lucky cat's most common features:

Beckoning Gesture

Lucky cat figurines are recognized for this distinctive gesture: a cat beckoning with an upward, open paw and folded fingers. To many westerners, this gesture might seem like the cat is waving instead of beckoning. This is due to the different body language used by the Japanese. For the Japanese, a raised hand with open palm and folded fingers is a beckoning sign.

Don’t want to go wrong? Get a Maneki-neko that beckons with both paws at the same time! Or get two kitties, each beckoning with a different paw.

Experts also say that the left paw cat attracts women while the right paw cat attracts men.

Another interesting tidbit is that in the traditional Maneki-neko, the paw rises just above the whiskers. You will find statuettes with paws extending beyond the whiskers though. The basis for this is that the higher the paw, the better the luck.

Legends and Popularity

There are many legends associated with Japanese lucky cats. But the best-known story is that of Naotaka li, a samurai and an actual historical figure.

According to this legend, Naotaka was returning from a long trip when a storm came upon him. He sought refuge under a tree near a rundown temple. The monks from the temple kept a white cat, named Tama. Naotaka noticed the little white cat sitting at the temple’s door. To his amazement, Tama raised his paw and beckoned him.

Naotaka, startled by the cat’s gesture, left his shelter and walked towards the temple. Just as he entered the temple, lightning struck the tree. Amazingly, Tama had saved his life. From that day on, Naotaka took care of the temple and the little white cat. When Tama died, he was buried on the temple’s grounds and Naotaka had a statue erected in his honor.

According to another legend, the idea of a lucky cat came to a poor old woman in her dreams. This old lady had had a pet cat for a very long time. To her, he was her only family. However, due to her extreme poverty she almost had to give him up. Luckily, she had a dream in which her cat told her to make a cat figurine and sell it. She followed his instructions and her fortune was made.

Whether these stories have contributed to the popularity of the Japanese lucky cat is not known, but his following has steadily grown not only in the United States but also around the world. Maneki-neko is very popular in China, Hong Kong, Singapore, Thailand and several western countries. There are even fan clubs devoted to this lucky cat.

The Lucky Cat in Japan

The maneki-neko or beckoning cat is a good luck symbol in Japan. The cats, found in a variety of colours and styles, are usually sitting up with one paw raised in a gesture of beckoning. The Maneki-neko is a common sight in Japan, placed in the entrances of shops and restaurants, in the hope that she will bring good luck and prosperity in the form of customers and extra business. The cat's colour, her attire and which of her paws is raised, even the height at which her paw is raised, all has significance.

The Origin of the Lucky Cat

There are many stories surrounding the origin of the beckoning cat, perhaps the most popular being the Legend of the Gotokuji Temple. This story, which is thought to date back to the beginning of the Edo Period (1603 - 1867), tells of a local priest, who looked after the Gotoku-ji Temple in Tokyo and kept a cat. Despite his poverty, the priest often shared his limited food with his cat. One day, during a storm a samurai sheltering under a tree at the temple saw the priest's cat, apparently beckoning to him to come into the temple for shelter. Just as he approached the cat, a bolt of lightning hit the tree that he had been sheltering under, causing it to crash to the ground where he had previously been standing. Grateful to the cat that had saved his life, the wealthy samurai rewarded the temple with funding for its upkeep and adopted it as his family place of worship. When the cat died, it was honoured by being buried in a special cemetery and a statue was made in his likeness, thus initiating the image of the lucky cat we know today.

white body - brings good luck
black body - wards off evil spirits and protects from illnesses
gold body - brings good fortune
silver body - brings longevity
pink body - brings love
yellow body - brings good relationships
red body - protects from illnesses

right paw up - brings good luck with money
left paw up - brings many customers/visitors
with gold bell - brings good fortune
with red scarf - draws attention
with gold coin - maintain wealth 

Maneki-neko by Wikipedia

Selasa, 22 April 2014


Seperti juga daerah-daerah lain di Indonesia, masyarakat Bali pun memiliki busana tradisional. Salah satunya adalah udeng, ikat kepala yang dikenakan kaum pria Bali. 

Udeng umum dikenakan oleh masyarakat dari berbagai lapisan masyarakat. Baik kalangan bangsawan maupun orang biasa, dari anak-anak hingga sesepuh, seluruh masyarakat Bali menggunakan ikat kepala ini.

Udeng terbuat dari kain dengan ukuran panjang kurang lebih sekitar setengah meter. Udeng terdiri dalam berbagai motif, mulai dari polos, ornamen metalik, corak batik, serta corak lain yang lebih modern. 

Udeng memiliki bentuk asimetris bilateral dengan sisi sebelah kanan lebih tinggi dari sisi kirinya. Bentuk asimetris ini memiliki makna filosofis setiap orang harus berusaha melakukan kebajikan (kanan). 

Lekukan udeng memiliki makna :
  • Lekuk dikanan lebih tinggi daripada dikiri berarti hendaknya kita lebih banyak melakukan hal yang baik (dharma) dari pada berbuat buruk (adharma)
  • Ikatan ditengah - tengah kening bermakna memusatkan pikiran kita.
  • Ujung keatas melambangkan Tuhan Yang Maha Esa.
Dengan menggunakan udeng secara garis besarnya disebutkan hendaknyalah kita selalu berbuat yang baik sehingga nantinya kita dapat bersatu dengan beliau (moksa).

Udeng memiliki simbol ketuhanan yang menyatukan Tri Murti dalam simpul "nunggal".
  • Tarikan ujung kain kanan melambangkan Wisnu, 
  • Tarikan ujung kain kiri melambangkan Brahma, 
  • Ujung kain diatas yang ditarik kebawah melambangkan Siwa. 
Artinya orang bali menuhankan Tri Murti sebagai satu kesatuan yang utuh dalam perlambang udeng yang digunakan.

Sedangkan udeng yang tertutup dan ikatan dibelakang yang boleh memakai udeng ini adalah pinandita (sulinggih) yaitu orang yg sudah mewinten atau Samkara Eka jati dan udeng seperti ini sering disebut dengan ''mebongkos nangka''.

Dalam ranah kadiatmikan, udeng  juga melambangkan panunggalan tri nadi. Artinya dalam persepsi masyarakat spiritual Bali, selaning lelata adalah pertemuan dari Tri Nadi itu, 
  • Ida, 
  • Pinggala, 
  • Sumsumna
Demikianlah disebutkan makna dan pengertian dari penggunaan udeng yang digunakan sehari - sehari sebagai kelengkapan pakaian adat dan budaya di Bali.

Sabtu, 28 September 2013

The Anniversary Symbol List by Year.

There is a strong tradition of giving gifts for wedding anniversaries that either represent or are made from the anniversary symbol traditionally associated with that year of marriage.  There are two main lists of symbols by year in circulation, the traditional and the modern.  Both anniversary lists have some variations, according to local tradition.

What is a Wedding Anniversary?

A wedding anniversary is the anniversary of the date a wedding took place.

On a wedding anniversary in many countries it is traditional to give a gift to your partner (or couples) that symbolise the number of years of marriage.

The names of some wedding anniversaries provide guidance for appropriate or traditional gifts for the spouses to give each other; if there is a party to celebrate the wedding anniversary these gifts can be brought by the guests and/or influence the theme or decoration of the venue.

The Origin of the Symbols

Wedding anniversary symbols, though probably practiced informally even before, truly began in 1897. In that year, Queen Victoria of England celebrated her sixtieth year on the throne. The event was called the "diamond jubilee," and well-wishers celebrated by giving diamonds as gifts, effectively creating the modern diamond market. 

Modern anniversary symbols are skewed more for contemporary standards of wealth. As such, a completely new table has been established which is just as valid as the traditional one.

Wedding anniversary names common to most nations :

Wooden (5th), Tin (10th), Crystal (15th), China (20th), Silver (25th), Pearl (30th), Ruby (40th), Golden (50th), and Diamond (60th).

Wedding Anniversary Symbol List By Year

4Flowers and Fruit20China
12Linen or Silk60Diamond